Annotated Bibliography Practice on High Skewel – “Attractiveness” Essay!

Ever made a wrong reference? I did. We need to be critical when searching for the right evidence especially I got the chance to practice on high school. I did very terrible but here is my sample that you must not follow!

Attraction refers to a quality that causes an interest or desire in something or someone. Is it just physical or are there more aspects to be considered that influences attraction. Preference in Human Mate Selection has been a topic of extensive and systematic study by psychologists (Mcgee and Shevlin). Some people think that appearance accurately predicts moral virtue (Regan). However, researchers are yet to unravel a more concrete and grounded breakthrough to prove the influences of Attraction.

According to Kohl, Atzmueller, Fink B, Grammer K, Pheremones play a part regarding to attraction. Their research proved; it showed that perceived the males were more attractive than the females that were exposed to pheromones. This was shown when they [30] asked males and females to rate vignettes of a fictional target male and female using semantic differentials, and also to provide a self assessment of mood. The test materials had been sealed into plastic bags, which were either impregnated with androstenol, androstenone, a synthetic musk control, and a no-odour control. Females exposed to androstenone produced lower sexual attractiveness ratings of the target male, while males exposed to androstenol perceived the male targets to be more sexually attractive. If the researchers did not have enough participants, they could not have promising results. Pheromones have a part to attraction but it does not summate and was not persuasive enough to justify itself as a huge part of attraction.

Most people think that smiling does not influence attraction. But, according to Nicolas Gueguen, Smiling can enhance attractiveness. His research proved to be very promising; it showed that Men who were smiled at approached the woman and considered her more favourably. This was shown when asked a female confederate to go into an elevator where a man was present. It was found out that the distance between the participant and female confederate decreased when she smile while entering the elevator. They also found out that in a mate relevant context, women who were approached by men exhibited higher averages frequencies of nonverbal displays toward those men, such as smiling, tossing the head, caressing an object, or flinging back their hair. Therefore a woman smiling at a man enhances her attractiveness in courtship contexts.

Humor and blends with attraction very well on a research done by Elizabeth McGee and Mark Shelvin. Their research proved to be a breakthrough towards the “funny guy, no effect on women “ scenario. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design-with gender and humor as independent  and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables-the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets and humor. In the end, the authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

According to Pamela Regan, physical appearance accurately predicts moral virtue and allocation of rewards. Take Cinderella for example. As we all know, good things eventually happened to Cinderella-she went to the ball, slide a glass slipper onto her dainty foot, married the prince, and lived happily ever after-meaning physical attractiveness is huge key. She also revealed that beautiful-is-good stereotype was alive and well- attractive stimulus person were also judged as significantly more poised, strong, warm, interesting, sociable, happy, enthusiastic, involved, friendly, energetic, excitable, socially skilled, flirtatious, bold, outgoing, sexually warm, kind, and intelligent than were unattractive stimulus persons. However, Steve Sailer says the people are attracted with preferred skin tones. He reports that 44 cultures favored lighter complexions on either only women (30) or on both sexes (14). In only 3 cultures was fair skin preferred on men only, and in just 4 cultures was darker skin desired. Lighter ladies were favored in many countries with little exposure to Western beauty standards, such as medieval Japan, Ethiopia, Aztec Mexico, and Moorish Spain, where the dominant culture was darker skinned than the conquered natives. He also discovered that the reason women were called “the fair sex” is because women are indeed fairer on average after puberty. Even though physical appearance and preference plays a part in attraction, Bates differs with Narcissism.  He use data from a list of addresses provided by a local doctor in the city of Mérida, Venezuela to test their hypothesis that people are strongly attracted to look-a-likes in physical and social appearance (“like attracts like”). They find the cumulative evidence presented here favors the hypothesis that humans search for couples based on “self seeks like”, using a narcissistic psychological algorithm in assessing the appropriate mate. Yet passive assortative mating could also explain our results. Passive assortative mating occurs when, due to population viscosity, reproduction occurs among spatially proximate individuals that are probably close or distant relatives. In the active sort, individuals choose their mates based on similar phenotypic traits, which reflect similar genes. In both cases the result is assortative mating or breeding among mates that possess similar genes.

Attractiveness is very broad and usually augmented due to different perspectives of people. There are no concrete and solid breakthroughs that could prove that there are specific aspects to be considered when it comes to attractiveness. All in all, Attractiveness remains a mystery and a desire fulfill a void that is missing in minds.


Posted on December 4, 2011, in Daily Dose and tagged . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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